Топики по английскому языку (V. 1)
Economy in Russia
The Russian is reach in natural resources in the past few years the Russia try to remove from a centrally controlled economy to a market economy. In spite of decline Russia has various branches of industry, such as metallurgical, automobile and chemical industry. Russia is divided on 11 economic regions such as: North, North west, central, Volga, Ural.. And Asia: West Siberia, East Siberia, and the Far East. Russian s machine building industry provides most of the Federations requirement for steam boilers and turbines, electric generators, grain combines, automobiles and electric locomotives and machine tools, instruments and automation components. Important automobile factories are located in Moscow, Н. Новгород, Ярославль Ижевск. Rus. textile industries are heavily concentrated in the European sector especially in the central region. Russian agriculture is not so developed. But some of the main crops grown on the South are wheat, fruits, on the North are wheat, barley, oats, vegetables. Cattle breeding and pig raising make up an important branch of R. agricultural. Forests is a very important branch for Russian. But in Rus. can not use the resources more effectively. In Rus. the resources is sold as the raw materials. It is necessary to employ of manufacturing. And then we will live better.
The Russian Art
The most important form of early Russian art was the icons. The word icon means image in Greek. Icon is the religious pictures of Christ and Saints on wooden panel. They decorated churches, mostly placed on the iconostasis. In Russia the finest icons were produced from the midforteenth century. In that time a specific national style icon painting was formed. Russian icon painting reached the highest point of its achievement in the works of Theothan Greek, Andrey Rublev and Dionissy in the mid-15 century. Andrey Rublev is a Russian greatest iconpainter. In 1408 he was engaged on the murals in the Cathedral of the Assumption at Vladimir when he also produced his version of the icon of Vladimirs Virgin. And well known cuch icons as Спас and Троица which was found in Vladimir. A. R. s icons is expressed a distinct filling of harmony, deep spirituality, grace and the beauty of the colors. Rs works is one of the greatest creations of medieval Russian painting. Intimate [intimeit] намекать, Severe[sivie] строгий, Distinct [distinkt] отличный, тчетливый. Creations [krieishn] создание, творение. In the2th half of 19 th century artists of the Wanderers group started painting scenes of contemporary life. Vasiliy Perov, Ivan Kramskoy, Aleksey Savrasov, Ivan Shishkin, Valentin Serov and Vasiliy Surikov were wanderers. The works of Wonderes are displayed in the famous picture galleries: the Tretiakov Gallery in Moscow, the Russian Museum in St. Petersburg. They called themselves the Wanderers, because they wanted to realize their ideals by taking wondering exibitions tthroughout the country. The most clear represenative of Wonderers in my opinion was Vasiliy Surikov. [1848-1916]. He was the first of the W. Hewas born in Krasnojarsk in Siberia. His masterpiece was the Боярыня Морозова.  Its an enormous painting-both in size and scale. A decorative surface rhythm and strong horizontals are other eharacteirctics common to Russian art, both ancient and modern, and like wise first recovered in the work of Surikov.
The English Art
The 18 th century, the Golden Age of British Art. The 18 th century, the great age of British painting. It was in this period that British art attained a distinct national character. Hogarth was followed by a row of illustrious painters: Thomas Gainsborough, with his lyrical landscapes, fancy pictures and portraits, Reynolds, who painted charming society portraits and became the first president of the Royal Academy. William Hogarth was unquestionably one of the greatest of English artists and a man of remarkably individual character and thought. It was his achievement to give a comprehensive view of social life within the framework of moralistic and dramatic narrative.
His masterpiece of the famous series was Marriage a la Mode. This set of pictures describes a marriage between the daughter of a rich man and a young lord, the son of an old earl. The Girls father has brought a bag full of money with him. Their children are together but apart: the young man is watching himself in the glass; the girl is listening to a young Counsellor. The pictures round the room help understand the situation. In one of the pictures Madam sits listening to the young Consellor, whose portrait hangs in her room. Other pictures in the series show My Lord who amuses himself with a bad company. He returns home tipsy. Madam wastes her money at auctions. The end is known. My Lord attacks the Counsellor, who kills him and is executed. Moral: do not listen to counsellors; don't marry a man for his rank, or a woman for her money; don't visit auctions unknown to your husband; don't have bad friends. Otherwise you will be ruined.
The most popular sources of entertainment and information are the press, radio, tv, and movies. The press plays an important part in the life of society. Millions of Americans in their free time read newspapers. The English word ‘newspaper’ does not really. Describe everything that you can read in this kind of publication. Newspapers include not only stories about recent events (news) , but opinions, advertising, and other non-news items. The first American newspaper was called Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestic. This paper was first published in Boston in 1690. Now there are about 2,600 newspapers published in the USA. The New York Times, the Washington Post, and the Los Angeles Times are three of the most important daily papers that describe foreign and domestic news. The radio does not interfere with your activities. You can listen to the radio while doing some work about the house, reading a book or driving a car. On the radio one can hear music, plays, news, and different commentary and discussions called ‘forums’. At a forum several authorities exchange views on social, economic and political problems. A peculiar feature of the American radio is soap opera. It is a sentimental serial drama that describes domestic problems and which is for housewives. Soap opera is usually broadcast every day. Most people find soap opera boring. There ate a lot of games on the radio. They are called ‘panel games’. Radio brings also cultural and educational programs. Many programs are made up of classical music. Television is a ‘chewing gum for ears and eyes’. There are many serials on TV in the USA. They appeared in the 1950s. TV games- attract a large audience, too. During TV quiz programs TV viewers answer different questions. There is a lot of education on television. For example, you can take a TV course in history, political economy, management, banking and in many other subjects, or learn a foreign language by TV. Educational TV films and programs are shown in schools and colleges as a part of the curriculum.